Lathe Operations: Facing

Facing Operations Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes.

When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end. Cutting Speeds

If you read many books on machining you will find a lot of information about the correct cutting speed for the movement of the cutting tool in relation to the workpiece. You must consider the rotational speed of the workpiece and the movement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Basically, the softer the metal the faster the cutting. D…

How Many Types of Broaching Machine are there?

There are four types of broaching machine:

  • Horizontal broaching machine

  • Vertical Broaching machine

  • Surface broaching machine

  • Continuous broaching machine

Horizontal Broaching Machine

All horizontal machines are of pull type. These may be used for either internal or external broaching. The horizontal broaching machine consists of a bed more than twice the length of broaching stroke. The broach pilot gives drive for pulling the broach.

Horizontal broaching machines are primarily used for broaching key ways, splines, slots, round holes and other internal shapes or contours. These machines have the disadvantage of taking more floor space than the vertical machine. However, long broaches and heavy work pieces are easily handled.

Horizontal Pull Type Broaching Machine Horizontal Broaching Machine Pulley

Vertical Broaching MachineVertical Broaching Machine       

The vertical broaching machines are available in either pull or push type. The push type is the most common. A vertical broaching machine is employed in multiple operations, and these are more likely to be found doing surface operations. There are three models available, pull up, pull down and push down. Pull up type is most popular. Vertical machines require an operator platform or a pit. It requires less floor space than the horizontal type.

Modern vertical broaches are provided with both hydraulic and electro-mechanical drives, but hydraulic drives are the most common because these cost less.

Surface Broaching Machine

Surface broaching machines have their broaching tools attached to a ram or rams forced in straight path along guide ways. On some machines the ram moves horizontally, on other vertically. When two rams are used, the machine is called a duplex broaching machining.

Continuous Broaching Machine

It is used for mass production of small components. The highly productive continuous-broaching method is used on rotary or horizontal continuous-broaching machines.

  • Rotary Continuous Broaching Machine - The work piece is loaded on the table which rotates continuously. During the operation the broach is stationary.

Rotary Continuous Broaching Machine

  • Horizontal Continuous Broaching Machine - The work pieces travel as they are carried by an endless chain. The work pieces are loaded into work holding fixtures mounted on the continuously moving chain. During the operation, the broach is stationery as before. Such machines are used for broaching small parts.

Horizontal Continuous Broaching Machine


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