Lathe Operations: Facing

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Facing Operations Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes.

When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end. Cutting Speeds

If you read many books on machining you will find a lot of information about the correct cutting speed for the movement of the cutting tool in relation to the workpiece. You must consider the rotational speed of the workpiece and the movement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Basically, the softer the metal the faster the cutting. D…

Types of Slotters Used in Slotting Machine

Slotting Machine

Various types of slotters are designed to suit various requirements. There are three types of slotters.

(a) Puncher Slotter. The puncher slotter is a heavy, rigid machine designed for removal of large amount of metal from large forgings or castings. The length of stroke of a puncher slotter is sufficiently large. It can remove 1.5 Kg to 2.5 Kg of material in one minute. Locomotive crank webs can be slotted from the rectangular shapes to exact size in less time than by any other method.


(b) General Production SlotterThis is widely used for general purpose production work. This may be divided into two classes. These are as follows:


(i) Those having solid body construction


(ii) Those having arrangements to tilt the body of the machine about 10° forward and backward for machining accurate internal and external tapers.


(c) Precision Tool Room Slotter. A considerable amount of tool room work is carried out on standard production slotter but the value of a precision slotter for this class of work cannot be over estimated as importance of accuracy in most cases, is of paramount importance. The slotter frame may be of tilting type with slotted link type of ram drive. The slotter operates at high speeds and is designed to take light cuts to produce accurate finish. In the larger machines, all the table and hand control are conveniently grouped together so as to perform profiling operation, where two feeds are to be used simultaneously.

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