Lathe Operations: Facing

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Facing Operations Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes.

When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end. Cutting Speeds

If you read many books on machining you will find a lot of information about the correct cutting speed for the movement of the cutting tool in relation to the workpiece. You must consider the rotational speed of the workpiece and the movement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Basically, the softer the metal the faster the cutting. D…

Difference between Stepper Motors and Controllers

Stepper-Motors-and-Controllers


While stepper engines and controllers cooperate to structure a solitary framework, they are discrete segments. The stepper controller, or stepper drive, is the "savvy" segment. It is customized to organize the straight developments of the engine shaft. The stepper engine performs the genuine work, on the other hand. Free of one another, nor has the capacity perform a helpful capacity, however together the two segments structure an innovatively exceptional bit of hardware.


The distinction between stepper engines and controllers lies in the fundamental capacity and motivation behind each. The stepper engine is intended for accuracy developments and performs the physical work of the framework. Not at all like immediate current (DC) controlled engines, which utilize brushes, the stepper engine utilizes windings that produce an electromagnetic field when stimulated. The stepper controller is a programmable circuit that conveys force to the windings of the stepper engine at sure times. This controlled conveyance of electrical vitality controls the windings and reasons the engine's pole to pivot in the correct heading.


The stepper controller can be prearranged with data expected to perform a rehashed exact capacity. The genuine preference of the framework, notwithstanding, is the capacity for on-the-fly programming. An administrator can alter the programming of the stepper controller utilizing a machine. These modifications alter the course or velocity of development in the stepper engine's pole.


Stepper engines and controllers are utilized together to make definitely measured developments in an assortment of mechanical applications. This has permitted the stepper engine and controller set-up to supplant costly servo units in numerous applications. Displaying aficionados use stepper engines and controllers to make remote-controlled model vehicles that can perform an extensive variety of developments. Mechanical autonomy designers can utilize these parts to make robots that can work around hindrances, climb stairs or perform assignments that are regarded to hazardous for human specialists. Stepper engines and controllers are even found in the workplace and home environment as parts of printers and machine scanners.


At the point when utilized as a part of a mechanical application, stepper engines and controllers are regularly intended for a particular assignment. The exact developments of assembling mechanical technology and gear are made conceivable with single stage or double stage step windings in the stepper engine. The stepper controller is either prearranged or physically modified by the administrator to control the developments of the stepper engine's pole. This sort of innovation is utilized to make machines to work welders or laser cutting supplies that can be excessively perilous for human laborers.

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