Lathe Operations: Facing

Facing Operations Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes.

When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end. Cutting Speeds

If you read many books on machining you will find a lot of information about the correct cutting speed for the movement of the cutting tool in relation to the workpiece. You must consider the rotational speed of the workpiece and the movement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Basically, the softer the metal the faster the cutting. D…

Work Holding Devices Used in Shaping Machine

There are many ways in which work may be held while it is being machined on the shaping machine. The common methods are mentioned below:

  • Chucks - Three jaw and four jaw chucks are mounted on shaper with suitable means to hold the work pieces.

  • Special Jig - Jig accurately locates the work in position for machining and holds it securely in position by means of clamping bolts, studs and screw.

  • Angle Plate - The work is securely fastened to an angle plate with clamps or bolts.

  • Plain Vice - Plain vice is bolted to the machine table. It holds the work piece securely while machining.

  • Universal Vice - This type of vice can be swivelled at any desired angle through a horizontal plane. It can be tilted and held stationary at an angle from the horizontal to the vertical by means of a hinged knee. Work is supported between the centres of dividing head.

  • Clamps - Various clamps used on shaping machine are as follows:

    • Screw heel clamp

    • Goose neck clamp

    • Universal adjustable clamp

    • Plain clamp

    • U clamp

    • Single finger clamp

    • Double finger clamp

Work Holding Device

Shaper Centres

These are a pair of centres similar to the head stock and tail stock of a lathe. The tail stock centre is used for supporting one end of the job and the head stock is for rotating the work.

There are some classes of work those cannot be completed on a lathe or a milling machine and for finishing such work the shaper centres are used. In setting up the job, which is roughly machined in a lathe is placed between the shaper centres using the same centre holes on the work.


  1. Can you write an article about the metal cutting devices? I think there is a need to add some ingredients to this article by writing about it.

  2. metal cutting tools for threading include:

    Thread Turning Tools
    Thread Mills
    HSS and Carbide Taps

    metal cutting tooling systems include:

    CVKV and BTKV
    Straight Shank Tooling

    metal cutting tools for turning applications:

    O.D. and I.D. Turning Inserts and Toolholders
    Grooving and Cut-off
    Turning Tools for Railroad

    metal cutting tools for holemaking include:

    Solid Carbide Drills
    Modular Drills
    Combination Tools
    Indexable Drilling and Counterboring Tools
    Precision Hole Finishing Tools
    Indexable Inserts

    metal cutting tools for solid end milling include:

    high-performance end mills
    end mills for hard steels and aluminum
    end mills for finishing, roughing and semi-finishing, and roughing
    ceramic end mills

    metal cutting tools for indexable milling include:

    Face Mills
    Shoulder Mills
    Slotting Mills
    Copy Mills
    Ceramic Mills and Classic Mills


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