Lathe Operations: Facing

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Facing Operations Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes.

When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end. Cutting Speeds

If you read many books on machining you will find a lot of information about the correct cutting speed for the movement of the cutting tool in relation to the workpiece. You must consider the rotational speed of the workpiece and the movement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Basically, the softer the metal the faster the cutting. D…

Shaping Machine Introduction

The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool used to produce flat surface. The surface may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. Modern shaper can generate contoured surfaces also. This is accomplished by holding the work rigidly on the machine and a reciprocating single point tool mounted on tool head. The single point tool moves along a horizontal axis over the work piece. The metal working shaper was developed in the year 1836 by James Nesmyth an English man.


Purpose - Purpose of the shaping machines are as follows:




  • The main purpose of shaping machine is to machine plane horizontal surface.

  • It is possible to form vertical and angular surfaces also. With proper tools and accessories even irregular surfaces can be formed.


Types of Shapers - Shapers are classified as follows:




  • As Per Type of Motion.

    • (i) Crank type

    • (ii) Geared type

    • (iii) Hydraulic type





  • As Per Position and Travel of Ram

    • (i) Horizontal type

    • (ii) Vertical type

    • (iii) Travelling head type



  • As Per Design of Table

    • (i) Standard shaper

    • (ii) Universal shaper



  • As Per Cutting Stroke

    • (i) Push type

    • (ii) Draw type



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