Showing posts from November, 2014

Lathe Operations: Facing

Facing Operations Facing is the process of removing metal from the end of a workpiece to produce a flat surface. Most often, the workpiece is cylindrical, but using a 4-jaw chuck you can face rectangular or odd-shaped work to form cubes and other non-cylindrical shapes.

When a lathe cutting tool removes metal it applies considerable tangential (i.e. lateral or sideways) force to the workpiece. To safely perform a facing operation the end of the workpiece must be positioned close to the jaws of the chuck. The workpiece should not extend more than 2-3 times its diameter from the chuck jaws unless a steady rest is used to support the free end. Cutting Speeds

If you read many books on machining you will find a lot of information about the correct cutting speed for the movement of the cutting tool in relation to the workpiece. You must consider the rotational speed of the workpiece and the movement of the tool relative to the workpiece. Basically, the softer the metal the faster the cutting. D…

Precautions to be Observed while Shaping Jobs between Centres

The alignment of the centre is to be checked (whether it is parallel to the movement of the ram) and adjusted before starting the work.
The moving tool should not come and dash against the head stock.
For long work pieces, proper support should be given (A jack is suitable for it)
The work is to be guarded against turning centres, while the tool cuts, with proper locking device.

Checking the Vice Jaws for Squareness and Parallelism

For checking the vice jaws for its squareness, place dial test indicator in the tool holder so that the indicator touches the finished surface. Then move the table with the help of cross feed back & forth and note the variation on the indicator.

Setting the Length of Stroke

The following procedure is to be adopted while setting the length of the stroke.

Bring the ram to the rear most position.
Loosen the knurled nut.
Turn the crank (stroke adjusting crank) till the desired length of the stroke {length of job + 3/4” (1/4” front clearance+1/2” back clearance)}.

Avoidable Global Warming Causes

Researchers have invested decades evaluating what is creating an Earth-wide temperature boost. They've taken a gander at the characteristic cycles and occasions that are known to impact atmosphere. Be that as it may the sum and example of warming that is been measured can't be clarified by these elements alone. The best way to clarify the example is to incorporate the impact of nursery gasses (Ghgs) emitted by people.

To unite this data, the United Nations shaped a gathering of researchers called the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC. The IPCC meets each few years to audit the most recent experimental discoveries and compose a report compressing all that is thought about a worldwide temperature alteration. Each one report speaks to an agreement, or understanding, among several heading researchers.

One of the first things researchers scholarly is that there are a few nursery gasses in charge of warming, and people radiate them in a mixture of ways. Most originate…

Work Holding Devices Used in Shaping Machine

There are many ways in which work may be held while it is being machined on the shaping machine. The common methods are mentioned below:

Chucks - Three jaw and four jaw chucks are mounted on shaper with suitable means to hold the work pieces.
Special Jig - Jig accurately locates the work in position for machining and holds it securely in position by means of clamping bolts, studs and screw.
Angle Plate - The work is securely fastened to an angle plate with clamps or bolts.
Plain Vice - Plain vice is bolted to the machine table. It holds the work piece securely while machining.
Universal Vice - This type of vice can be swivelled at any desired angle through a horizontal plane. It can be tilted and held stationary at an angle from the horizontal to the vertical by means of a hinged knee. Work is supported between the centres of dividing head.
Clamps - Various clamps used on shaping machine are as follows:

Screw heel clamp
Goose neck clamp
Universal adjustable clamp
Plain clamp
U clamp
Single finger…

Main Parts of Shaping Machine and Their Application

The following are the main parts of shaping machine:

Base - Base is a hollow casting upon which the other parts of the shaper are mounted. It also houses a reservoir for supply of oil which is circulated for moving parts of the machine.
Frame - Frame is a large casting that rests upon the base. It houses the mechanism and supports the ram and the table.
Ram - Ram is the main moving part of the shaper. It holds and drives the single point cutting tool back and forth across the work. This is attached to the rocker arm through a small link lever, and slides along the top ways.
Tool Head - The tool head is designed to hold the cutting tools. It is attached to the front of the ram. It may be swivelled to a required angle to the left or right with respect to vertical slide of tool head and locked in place with the help of a bolt or screw. It may also be adjusted vertically and locked in position. The tool post is fastened to a clapper box to ride over the work when the ram returns back. It is l…

Details of Various Shaping Machines

Crank Shaper - The most common type of shaping machine is the crank shaper, in which the motion of its ram is being derived from a crank, a crank block, and a crank pin. The shaper size is known by the largest stroke of the ram. Usually it ranges from 12” to 36” with 24” being the most common.

Gear Type Shaper - The reciprocating motion of the ram in this type of a shaper is obtained by means of a rack and pinion. The speed and the direction in which the machine will traverse depend upon the number of gears in the gear train. This type of shaper is not very widely used.

Hydraulic Shaper - In a hydraulic shaper, the reciprocating movements of the ram are obtained by hydraulic power. Oil under high pressure is pumped into the operating cylinder fitted with a piston. The end of the piston rod is connected to the ram. The high pressure oil first acts on one side of the piston causing the piston to reciprocate and the motion is transmitted to the ram. The piston speed is changed by varying t…

Shaping Machine Introduction

The shaper is a reciprocating type of machine tool used to produce flat surface. The surface may be horizontal, vertical or inclined. Modern shaper can generate contoured surfaces also. This is accomplished by holding the work rigidly on the machine and a reciprocating single point tool mounted on tool head. The single point tool moves along a horizontal axis over the work piece. The metal working shaper was developed in the year 1836 by James Nesmyth an English man.
Purpose - Purpose of the shaping machines are as follows:

The main purpose of shaping machine is to machine plane horizontal surface.
It is possible to form vertical and angular surfaces also. With proper tools and accessories even irregular surfaces can be formed.

Types of Shapers - Shapers are classified as follows:

As Per Type of Motion.

(i) Crank type
(ii) Geared type
(iii) Hydraulic type

As Per Position and Travel of Ram

(i) Horizontal type
(ii) Vertical type
(iii) Travelling head type

As Per Design of Table

(i) Standard shaper

Hydraulic Transmission System of BEML Tractor

Description on Structural Detail and Operation
The transmission is of direct mounted type and is bolted directly to the engine flywheel by a flexible disc drive. Provision is made to isolate the necessary drive gears from the flywheel cavity to provide a dry fly wheel housing while maintaining lubrication for the gears.
This transmission provided two forward and two reverse speeds with short drop output. The range clutches are multi disc hydraulic actuated type which compensate wear automatically. Its twin turbine convertor extends the torque multiplication of the converter; in each gear ranges providing broad torque coverage equal to two normal planetary gear ratios and is accomplished automatically and efficiently.
The twin turbine torque converter consists of pump assembly (6) First turbine assembly (3) Second turbine assembly (4) stator (5). The pump assembly is the driving member and is driven at engine speed. First and second turbine assemblies are driven members connected by trans…

General Specification and Leading Particulars of BEML Tractor

There are many types of tractors used in industries for various purposes. BEML tractor is mainly used for towing aircraft from hangers to the dispersal area. Bharat Earth Movers Ltd Bangalore manufactures this tractor. It has got 75 Ton towing capacity. Ashok Leyland engine and Allison transmission is installed in this tractor. Hydraulic torque converter is used for jerk free towing operation and to increase power. The steering is open center, non-reaction hydraulic type that provides greater safety and comfort. Couplers are attached at front and rear for connecting tow bar. Air brake and parking cum emergency brake is also provided for greater safety.

General Specifications


Ashok Leyland ALU-402/2

Max rated HP
110 HP


No. of Cylinder

107.18 mm

120.65 mm

6540 cc

Compression ratio

Water cooled


ALLISION TRT 2221-3 2 forward and 2 reverse speeds single lever full power shift control

TT 260, 2 stage, 2 phase, 4 element

What Is an Accredited Law School?

An accredited law school is a law school that has gotten accreditation from an outsider authorizing organization. In numerous spots, just people who have finished a law degree from a certify law school are qualified to sit for the law student review or to provide legal counsel. In a few places, a law school must be authorize by a particular accreditor on the off chance that its understudies are to happen to provide legal counsel. In the United States starting 2011, very nearly all states require the individuals who sit for their state law questionnaire to have finished a law degree licensed by the American Bar Association (ABA).

The accreditation of schools is ordinarily a matter of a school experiencing a thorough examination by an outside authorizing org. The school will be assessed for the nature of its instructive offerings and also its framework and organization. While accreditation is an essential venture in securing a school's believability, there are various accreditors wit…

What Is an Accredited Distance Education Degree Program?

An accredited separation learning degree is an authority accreditation issued by a school that offers a separation learning degree projects and that likewise is licensed. The degree serves as confirmation of the understudy's tasteful finish of studies in a specific order. It may additionally be viewed as an authority report that ensures that the graduate has been appropriately and professionally prepared to work in the field of study that he or she picked. An alternate method for portraying an authorize separation learning degree is to call it a recompense for having picked up information and aptitude in a particular branch of knowledge or when all is said in done studies.

Gaining an authorize separation learning degree does not ensure worldwide or even national distinguishment of the graduate's achievements, in light of the fact that not all licensed schools are perceived all things considered. Distinguishment quite often relies on upon the status of the accredited ing office,…

What is an Accredited Online College?

Online degree projects permit individuals to procure a professional education from their own particular homes. A machine with web access grants separation training understudies to seek after a degree and make ready for another profession and conceivable higher wage. At the point when picking a separation instruction program, its vital that understudies go to a licensed online school. This is on account of an authorize online school has been emphatically assessed by an associate survey board included teachers from other Accredited colleges or schools. Schools licensed by these regarded survey sheets must meet certain benchmarks keeping in mind the end goal to be sanction.

Accredited online colleges offer degrees that are regarded and perceived by different organizations of higher learning. Acquiring a degree from such a school permits the graduate to discover an occupation obliging this specific qualification. The executive realizes that when he employs a move on from an authorize onlin…

What Is a Waste Management System?

A waste administration framework ordinarily alludes to a particular method, technique, or gadget used to treat waste materials. This may incorporate the accumulation, transportation, reusing, transfer, or transforming of waste. The utilization of waste administration frameworks differs as indicated by both the sorts of waste material to be dealt with and the points of the treatment itself. As a rule, waste administration frameworks endeavor to check waste for reasons, for example, general wellbeing dangers, natural concerns, or the general appearance of an area.

The term squander by and large involves an undesirable or unusable material that is deliberately disposed of by its clients. Characterizations of distinctive sorts of waste incorporate human waste, modern waste, dangerous waste, or biodegradable waste. Particular meanings of waste have been built into law by associations, for example, the United Nations (UN) and the European Union (EU), keeping in mind the end goal to viably gr…

What is Waste Management?

Waste administration is an industry which rotates around the gathering, stockpiling, and transfer of waste, extending from common family unit waste to the waste created at atomic force plants. Creating viable waste administration systems is basic for countries everywhere throughout the world, as numerous types of waste can form into a real issue when they are not taken care of legitimately. Various firms give waste administration administrations of an assortment of sorts, and a few governments likewise control the waste administration industry for security and adequacy.

People produce a lot of waste as a side effect of their presence, and they generally have, as confirmation at dumping pits found in or around archeological destinations can verify. Each assignment, from setting up a supper to assembling an auto, is went hand in hand with the creation of waste material, which can't be utilized for different things and needs to be discarded adequately. If not contained and took care o…

Important Features of Mercury

Mercury is a little planet, with an orbital width around a third of our own, found give or take two and 75% light minutes from the Sun. It is approximately 1/twentieth the Earth's mass and volume, with a surface temperature of -292 to 806 °f (−180 to 430 °c), with the highs at Mercurian high twelve and the lows in holes close to the posts. It is made up of 70% metallic material and 30% silicate material, with a moderately expansive center made up of liquid iron.

Regardless of its little size, Mercury has been seen from Earth since aged times because of its brightening by the Sun. With the rejection of Pluto as a planet, Mercury is the new most diminutive planet in the earth's planetary group, albeit two moons, Ganymede and Titan, are bigger, yet at the same time less gigantic.

The greatest puzzle about Mercury is its extensive iron center, around 42% of its volume with respect to Earth's 17%. There are different hypotheses used to clarify this. The principal is an effect bas…

Relationship Between Sulfuric Acid and Hydrochloric Acid

Sulfuric corrosive and hydrochloric corrosive are solid acids, both of which are destructive and unsafe in concentrated structure. Sulfuric corrosive, (H2SO4) is a dreary, marginally gooey, slick fluid and is the more perilous of the two. Hydrochloric corrosive, (HCl) is a dry, unscented fluid that a larger number of takes after water than the more thick sulfuric corrosive and is otherwise called muriatic corrosive. The principle association between sulfuric corrosive and hydrochloric corrosive, other than likenesses in properties, is the way that hydrochloric corrosive can be integrated from sulfuric corrosive and regular table salt.

Both acids are firmly destructive and have numerous uses in industry and science. Sulfuric corrosive is a standout amongst the most widely recognized mechanical chemicals, and indeed, sulfuric corrosive generation is here and there utilized as one gauge of a country's level of modern improvement. A huge number of huge amounts of sulfuric corrosive are…